CopyAsMarkup Feature Details

This page describes each CopyAsMarkup™ feature in detail. It is mostly a list that shows exactly how CaM maps specific Word features onto HTML, Markdown, and TeX.

The CopyAsMarkup home page contains more general information.

Paragraph Styles

Word Paragraph Style HTML Markdown
Normal

<p>…</p>

<p>…</p>


Heading 1



Heading 2



Heading 3

Heading 4

Heading 5

Heading 6

<h1>…<h1>



<h2>…<h2>



<h3>…<h3>

<h4>…<h4>

<h5>…<h5>

<h6>…<h6>

=======


_________


###…###

####…####

#####.#####

######…######

Blank paragraph with bottom border <hr> or <hr /> _________
Blockquote <blockquote>…</blockquote>

> …

> …

PullQuote <[aside|div] class="pull-quote">

> …

> …

Code <pre><code>…</code></pre>

   …

   …

Fenced

<pre class="fenced">

<code>…</code>

</pre>

~~~

~~~

Term

Description

<dl>

   <dd>term</dd>

   <dt>description</dt>

</dl>

: term

description

Caption, just above or just below a table or an image. See entries below for tables and images.
Aside <aside> or <div class="aside">
Sidenote <[aside|div] class="sidenote">
Drop cap

<p class="drop-cap-paragraph">

<span class="drop-cap">T</span></p>

ToggleDiv1

<div class="toggle-note">…</div>

Other paragraph styles <div class="style-name">…</div>
  1. ToggleDiv does not work with the Tufte CSS hack. It only works when you use JavaScript to toggle the text on and off. The paragraph before a ToggleDiv will be assigned to <p class="margin-toggle">. Then that entire paragraph will be a toggle button.
  2. If an image occupies an entire Word paragraph, CaM will not wrap the <figure> tag with <p> tags. Any paragraph styles will be applied as a class to the <figure>.

Tables

Word Feature HTML Markdown1
Table

<table>

   <tr>

      <td>…</td>

      <td>…</td>

   </tr>

</table>

|||

|---|---|---|

| … | … | … |

| … | … | … |

| … | … | … |

Table with
Heading2

<table>

   <thead>

   <tr>

      <th>…</th>

      <th>…</th>

   </tr>

   </thead>

   <tbody>

   <tr>

      <td>…</td>

      <td>…</td>

   </tr>

   </tbody>

</table>

| … | … | … |

|---|---|---|

| … | … | … |

| … | … | … |

| … | … | … |

Column alignment

|left|center|right|

|:---|:----:|----:|

Paragraph style: Caption

<table>

<caption>…</caption>

   

</table>

<div class="table-caption">…</div>
Merged cells <td rowspan="r" colspan="c">…</td> HTML table
Table style <table class="style-name">
Numeric data Cells are right-padded with spaces that will align numbers on the decimal, if the column is right-aligned.
  1. Most, not all, Markdown implementations will render pipe tables written in this format.
  2. CaM will recognize a heading row by: (a) top row background colored differently than other rows, or (b) heavy border below top row, or (c) alpha entries in the top row and numeric entries below.
  3. CopyAsMarkup cannot convert nested tables.

Lists

Word Feature HTML Markdown
Bulleted List

<ul>

   <li>…</li>

   <li>…</li>

   <li>…</li>

</ul>

* …

* …

* …

Numbered List

<ol>

   <li>…</li>

   <li>…</li>

   <li>…</li>

</ol>

1. …

2. …

3. …

Multi-Level
Bulleted List

<ul>

   <li>…</li>

   <li>…

      <ul>

         <li>…</li>

         <li>…</li>

      </ul>

   </li>

</ul>

* …

* …

   * …

   * …

Multi-Level
Numbered List

<ol>

   <li>…</li>

   <li>…

      <ol>

         <li>…</li>

         <li>…</li>

      </ol>

   </li>

</ol>

1. …

2. …

   1. …

   2. …

List style <[ul|ol] class="style-name">

If you select part of a multi-level list, I recommend that you always extend the selection to include all child list items. That way, CopyAsMarkup will write the closing </li> tag for the parent list item.

Markdown users should note that some Markdown implementations do not support a multi-level numbered list.

Character Formats

Word Character Format HTML Markdown
subscript <sub>…</sub> Same as HTML
superscript <sup>…</sup> Same as HTML
italic1 <em>…</em> *…*
bold1 <strong>…</strong> **…**
bold-italic1 <strong><em>…</em></strong> ***…***
strike-thru1 <del>…</del> Same as HTML
strike-thru, then bold <del>…</del><ins>…</ins> Ditto
hidden omit text Ditto
all caps1 <span style="text-transform: uppercase";>…</span> Ditto
small caps1 <span style="font-variant: small-caps";>…</span> Ditto
underline1 <u>…</u> Ditto
  1. In headings, CopyAsMarkup will not apply <em>, <strong>, <del>, <u>, all-caps, or small-caps. Use CSS instead.

Character Styles

Word Style HTML Markdown
Code <code>…</code> `…`
Cite1, Title, Citation, or Author <[cite|span] class="style-name">…</[cite|span]> Same as HTML
Toggle2 <span class="toggle">⊕</span><span class="toggle-note">…</span> Same as HTML
MarginNote3 <span class="margin-toggle">⊕</span><span class="margin-note"">…</span> Same as HTML
other character styles <span class="style-name">…</span> Same as HTML
  1. The <cite> tag is used only when CaM’s HTML5 setting is checked. Otherwise, CaM uses a <span> tag.
  2. The character style Toggle writes a parenthetical note that a reader can turn on and off with a click. You can see the effect by clicking on You are reading a toggle-note right now. The note will go away if you click again on the toggle symbol.
    For a toggle note to work, your web site will need the appropriate CSS and JavaScript.
  3. A margin noteThis is a margin note. is a parenthetical remark that displays in a responsive way. On a wide screen, it is a sidenote without footnote-style numberings. On a small screen, it displays as a toggle note. Of course, you need the right CSS and JavaScript to make that happen.
Word Feature HTML1 Markdown
Hyperlink
field
<a href="path">id</a> [id](path)
Hyperlink
in which
id = path.
<a href="path">path</a> <path>
Bookmark
in a heading

<div id="bkmk-name">

<h1>…</h1></div>

##…##{#bkmk-name}
Bookmark elsewhere <p id="bkmk-name">…</p>

[bkmk-name]: #bkmk-name

<p>…</p>

  1. HTML links will also contain: target="_blank", if you’ve set CaM settings to open links in a new tab.

Images

When CopyAsMarkup writes an image link in Markdown, the format is:

    <p>…![alt text]…</p>
        ⋮
    [alt text]: path "alt text"

In HTML, image markup varies and is dependent on captions and alignments.

A plain vanilla inline image, with no caption:

    <img src="…" alt="…">

An image with text wrapped around it:

    <img src="…" alt="…" class="inset-[left|right]">

An inline image occupying an entire paragraph, with a paragraph in Caption paragraph style either directly above it or directly below it. In HTML 5:

    <figure>
        <img src="…" alt="…">
        <figcaption>…<figcaption>
    </figure>

Same as above, but not in HTML5:

    <div>
        <img src="…" alt="…">
       <div class="image-caption">…</div>
    </div>

Text Box containing only a picture and a caption, inline:

    <figure>
        <img src="…" alt="…">
        <figcaption>…<figcaption>
    </figure>

Text Box with captioned image, floated left or right

    <figure class="inset-[left|right]">
        <img src="…" alt="…">
        <figcaption>…<figcaption>
    </figure>

Footnotes

The Markdown format for footnotes is:

    [^n]
        ⋮
    [^n]: footnote text

In HTML, you can choose the output to be configured as a footnote or as a side noteThis is a sidenote.. The sidenote markup is written below.

<span class="sidenote-marker"></span>
<span class="sidenote">…</span>

If you choose the footnote option, then the markup for a web page looks like this:

    <p>…<sup id="fnref-1">
            <a href="#fn-1" class="footnote-ref">1</a>
        </sup>…
    </p>
    ⋮
    <div class="footnotes">
        <hr>
        <ol>
            <li id="fn-1">footnote text 
                <a href="#fnref-1" class="footnote-backref">&#8617;</a>
            </li>
        </ol>
    </div>

A footnote for an eBook has different markup:

    <aside id="fn-1" epub:type="footnote">footnote text</aside>

Markdown users should be aware that not all Markdown implemen­tations can parse footnotes.

Text Boxes

CaM’s standard output for an inline text box is:

    <div>...</div>

If other text wraps around the text box, then CaM will add an attribute, either class="inset-left" or class="inset-right", as appropriate.

If the text box contains only an image and a caption, CaM will write:

<img src="path/fileName" caption="caption" alt="alt text">

Again, CaM will add a class attribute for an inset, if appropriate.

There is no Markdown syntax that maps to a Word text box. All text boxes will be converted to HTML.

General Cleanup

Word Feature HTML Markdown
Comment <!-- comment --> <!-- comment -->
Manual line break (shift-enter) inside a paragraph <br> or <br /> two spaces at end of line
Blank paragraph with no border <br> or <br /> two spaces at end of line
Blank paragraph with bottom border <hr> or <hr /> ______________
Curly quotes <q>…</q> ….
Tab one space one space
Multiple spaces one space one space
Leading and trailing spaces and tabs omitted omitted
No-break space
(Ctrl+shift+space)
&nbsp; &nbsp;
... Ellipsis character… Ellipsis character…
.. Single dot
(except in path names)
Single dot
(except in path names)
,, , ,
,. . .
Spaces preceding a comma or dot omit spaces omit spaces
-- em dash em dash
hyphen between two numbers en dash en dash
Word soft hyphen
(Ctrl-)
HTML soft hyphen
- (U+00AD)
- (U+00AD)
& &amp; \&
< &lt; \<
> &gt; >
" &quot; "

CaM ignores all other features and formatting in the Word document. If you want some other kind of formatting, then use a style.

Web site administrators should consider creating an example Word document for your authors. In the example document, create Word styles that have corresponding classes in your CSS.

Math

The Math In Word section on the CopyAsMarkup home page contains tips for writing math in Microsoft Word. Below, I describe how CopyAsMarkup will translate Word math into something that web browsers and eBooks will render. []CopyAsMarkup’s math capability is a major part of my motivation for writing CaM. Writing math in Word’s math zone is just easier than fiddling with TeX.

Math Markup

CopyAsMarkup will convert the contents of a Word math zone to the math mode of TeX, the math markup language used by many mathemat­ically oriented websites.


Click here▾ for background information on TeX.

Math on the web is complicated. W3C has declared that MathML is the way that they would prefer you to write math notation into HTML pages. And yet many, perhaps most, mathematical web pages disregard that declaration. Instead, it is the math mode of TeX (pronounced tecchhh) that is becoming the de facto standard.

This situation has come about in the following way: Chrome and Internet Explorer/Edge do not support MathML, so many mathe­matical web pages get their math rendering done by a third party library like MathJax. Since MathJax can render either MathML or TeX, web site administrators can pick the math markup they prefer. That choice has been TeX at sites like Khan Academy and Math.StackExchange. Even Wikipedia math starts out as TeX before Wikipedia converts it into their PNG images. Compared to MathML, TeX is less verbose and is easier for humans to read and write.

TeX has many different extensions, so here is a clarification: CaM converts Word math zones to the math mode of AMS-LaTeX. CaM cannot write any non-math TeX.

To be still more precise, CaM’s HTML and Markdown both write a MathJax flavored version of AMS-LaTeX, in order to target web pages. The Copy-as-TeX command will omit the MathJax exten­sions, in order to target an AMS-LaTeX rendering engine.

For the curious, there is some background on the history of TeX here, and a syntax primer here and here. And there are many more resources here.

Note that Copy-as-TeX can act on only one math zone at a time. Copy-as-HTML and Copy-as-Markdown will act on all the math zones in your selection.

TeX Libraries

There are some excellent third party libraries that render CaM-generated TeX for web pages. MathJax was the first one to do really good quality math rendering. KaTeX is faster than MathJax, but not as comprehensive. QuickTeX is also worth a look, especially for WordPress blogs.

To install MathJax in your web site, write the following code into your web page’s <head>:

<script type="text/javascript" async
    src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.1/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS_HTML">
</script>

That URL contains a version number, so you will need to check mathjax.org now and then to see if there has been an upgrade.


To install KaTeX:

  1. Write the following code into your web page’s <head>:
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/KaTeX/0.7.1/katex.min.css" integrity="sha384-wITovz90syo1dJWVh32uuETPVEtGigN07tkttEqPv+uR2SE/mbQcG7ATL28aI9H0" crossorigin="anonymous">
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/KaTeX/0.7.1/katex.min.js" integrity="sha384-/y1Nn9+QQAipbNQWU65krzJralCnuOasHncUFXGkdwntGeSvQicrYkiUBwsgUqc1" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/KaTeX/0.7.1/contrib/auto-render.min.js" integrity="sha384-dq1/gEHSxPZQ7DdrM82ID4YVol9BYyU7GbWlIwnwyPzotpoc57wDw/guX8EaYGPx" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
    document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
        renderMathInElement(document.body, {delimiters:[
            {left: "\\[", right: "\\]", display: true},
            {left: "\\(", right: "\\)", display: false}
        ]});
    });
</script>

Those URLs contain a version number. Check in periodically here to get the current release number.

  1. Write the following into your site’s CSS file, unless you want your math to be sized 21% larger than other text:
.katex { font-size: 1em !important; }

If your web site or eBook has only a small amount of math notation and you don’t want to add a third party library, you could use SVG images ▾ instead.

SVG is an image format that can display math in better quality than bit-mapped images. But it’s tricky to get the image to display at the correct size. If the size is set directly inside the <img> tag, then the size can only be written in units of px. We want the size to be defined in em’s, so that the equation will resize when the reader changes the font size.

The trick is to set the SVG image width to 100%, then nest the <img> inside a <span> or <div> and set the container’s width in em’s. CopyAsMarkup will do that for you if you take the following steps.

  1. Write your math in a Word math zone.
  2. Use Copy-as-TeX to get a TeX version of the equation.
  3. Use LaTeX Previewer to get an SVG image of the TeX. Load the SVG into your web site's directory.
  4. Use CaM’s Wrap a math SVG command. It will place the proper markup onto the Windows clipboard.
  5. In your HTML file, paste the image markup in place of the TeX.

To illustrate, the equation below is an SVG image.

Faraday’s Law

The markup that CaM wrote for that equation looks like this:

<div style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; width: 12.3em;">
    <img src="images/faraday.svg" alt="Faraday’s Law" style="width:100%;">
</div>

Kindle eReaders

Amazon’s Kindle eReaders do not support either MathML or TeX, nor do they run JavaScript, so they cannot run either MathJax or KaTeX in real time. Publishers, faced with this dilemma, have often resorted to bit-mapped images of equations. You can and should do better. For Kindle, I can recommend two alternate courses of action.

Note: I haven't yet tested these options.


Option A: KaTeX Pre-Process.   Click▾ for details.

Write your TeX into a KaTeX-equipped html page and view it in any up-to-date web browser. Then right click anywhere in the document and select the Inspect [Element] option. The browser will open a window pane that shows the HTML in the condition after KaTeX has done its work. Right-click on the <body> tag and select the Copy outerHTML option. Paste the HTML into the publication version of your eBook file.

Your Kindle book will need to include the KaTeX css file and the .woff fonts in the KaTeX font file.

You may find that KaTeX does not render every bit of TeX in your document. To deal with the remaining TeX, read on.


Option B: SVG Image.   Click▾ for details.

SVG is an image format that can display math in better quality than bit-mapped images. But it’s tricky to get the image to display at the correct size. If the size is set directly inside the <img> tag, then the size can only be written in units of px. We want the size to be defined in em’s, so that the equation will resize when the reader changes the font size.

The trick is to set the SVG image width to 100%, then nest the <img> inside a <span> or <div> and set the container’s width in em’s. CopyAsMarkup will do that for you if you take the following steps.

  1. Write your math in a Word math zone.
  2. Use Copy-as-TeX to get a TeX version of the equation.
  3. Use LaTeX Previewer to get an SVG image of the TeX. Load the SVG into your web site's directory.
  4. Use CaM’s Wrap a math SVG command. It will place the proper markup onto the Windows clipboard.
  5. In your HTML file, paste the image markup in place of the TeX.

To illustrate, the equation below is an SVG image.

Faraday’s Law

The markup that CaM wrote for that equation looks like this:

<div style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; width: 12.3em;">
    <img src="images/faraday.svg" alt="Faraday’s Law" style="width:100%;">
</div>

One hopes that Kindle will someday include either MathJax or KaTeX.

TeX Details

CopyAsMarkup will convert Word math zones to TeX and write the TeX between the delimiters shown here:

Copy-as-… Inline Display
HTML \(…\) \[…\]
TeX
Markdown $ …$ $$ …$$

Below is a list of math constructs that CopyAsMarkup will convert from Word math zones to TeX.


Word
Feature
TeX
\({x_i }\) x_i
\({x^2}\) x^2
\({x_i^2}\) x_i^2
\(\dfrac a b \) frac{a}{b}
\({\tfrac 1 8 }\) tfrac{1}{8}
\(a/b\) a/b
\(\binom n k \) \binom{n}{k}
\(n \atop k\) n \atop k
\(a\div b\) a\div b
\(\sqrt x \) \sqrt{x}
\(\sqrt[n]x \) \sqrt[n]{x}
\(\lvert x\rvert\) \lvert x\rvert
\(\lVert x\rVert\) \lVert x\rVert
\[\lim_n x\] \lim_{n}x
\[\sum_a^b c\] \sum_a^b c
\[\int_a^b c\] \int_a^b c
\[\oint a\] \oint a
\[\iint a\] \iint a
\[\left.x^2\right|_0^1\] \left.x^2\right|_0^1
\[{\prod_a^b c}\] \prod_a^b c
\[{\coprod_a^b c}\] \coprod_a^b c
\[{\bigcup_a^b c}\] \bigcup_a^b c
\[{\bigcap_a^b c}\] \bigcap_a^b c
\[{\bigvee_a^b c}\] \bigvee_a^b c
\[\begin{aligned} a&=b+c \\ d+e&=f \end{aligned}\] \begin{aligned} a&=b+c \\
d+e&=f \end{aligned}
\[\begin{cases}a &\text{if } b \\ c &\text{if } d\end{cases}\] \begin{cases}a &\text{if } b \\
c &\text{if } d\end{cases}
\[\begin{matrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{matrix}\] \begin{matrix}a & b \\
c & d\end{matrix}
\[\begin{pmatrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{pmatrix}\] \begin{pmatrix}a & b \\
c & d\end{pmatrix}
\[\begin{bmatrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{bmatrix}\] \begin{bmatrix}a & b \\
c & d\end{bmatrix}
\[\begin{vmatrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{vmatrix}\] \begin{vmatrix}a & b \\
c & d\end{vmatrix}
\[\begin{Vmatrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{Vmatrix}\] \begin{Vmatrix}a & b \\
c & d\end{Vmatrix}
\[\begin{Bmatrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{Bmatrix}\] \begin{Bmatrix}a & b \\
c & d\end{Bmatrix}
 a +
\boxed{a+b}
\(\text x \) \text{x}
\(f'\) f'
\(f''\) f''
\(\acute x\) \acute{x}
\(\bar y\) \bar{y}
\(\breve x\) \breve{x}
\(\check x\) \check{x}
\(\dot a \) \dot{a}
\(\ddot a \) \ddot{a}
\(\grave x\) \grave{x}
\(\hat{\theta}\) \hat{\theta}
\(\tilde a\) \tilde{a}
\(\vec F\) \vec{F}
\(\widehat{ab}\) \widehat{ab}
\(\widetilde{ab} \) \widetilde{ab}
\(\overrightarrow{ab} \) \overrightarrow{ab}
\(\text P(A|B)\) \text P(A|B)
\(\langle\phi |\psi\rangle\) \langle\phi |\psi\rangle
\[\left\{x\mid f(x)=0\right\}\] \left\{x\mid f(x)=0\right\}
\(\overline{abc}\) \overline{abc}
abc \underline{abc}
\(\overbrace{abc}^x \) \overbrace{abc}^x
\(\underbrace{abc}_y \) \underbrace{abc}_y
\({_{\,92}^{238}}U\) {_{\,92}^{238}}U
\(\color{#0000FF}{2+2}\) \color{blue}{2+2}, or
\color{#0000FF}{2+2}, or
\color[RGB]{0,0,255}{2+2}

The following Unicode letters:

αβγδϵζηθι℩κλμνξοπρστυϕχψωεϑϖϱςφ
ΓΔ∆ΘΛΞΠΣΥΦΨΩΩϜ
ϰKℵℶℷℸℏıȷℓℜℑ℘

… are replaced with:

\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta \iota \riota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \omicron \pi \rho \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega \varepsilon \vartheta \varpi \varrho \varsigma varphi \Gamma \Delta \Delta \Theta \Lambda \Xi \Pi \Sigma \Upsilon \Phi \Psi \Omega \Omega \digamma \varkappa K \aleph \beth \gimmel \daleth \hbar \imath \jmath \ell \Re \Im \wp

Font Styles

Word math zones can include letters in font styles specialized for math. Examples:

\(\mathbb{NZQRC}\,\,\mathcal g\ell\wp \,\,\mathcal H \mathfrak{IR}\)

CaM recognizes characters like these and will make font adjustments with various combinations of the following TeX functions:

\mathbb, \mathcal, \mathbf, \mathit, \mathsf, \mathtt, \mathfrak

Italics

Word math zones and TeX both render most alpha characters in italics, which is the correct way to render math variables. But function names, logic words (if, and, or, etc.), and unit names (meters, etc.) should not be in italics. You may have reasons to omit still other italics. So CaM will omit italics in the following cases:

The following words:

arccos arcsin arctan arg cos cosh cot coth csc deg det exp gcd lim ln log max min mod sec sin sinh tan tanh

… are replaced with the TeX operators:

\arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \exp \gcd \lim \ln \log \max \min \bmod \sec \sin \sinh \tan \tan

The following logic words—if and or not else xor otherwise—are replaced with \text{…}.

You can choose to omit other math zone italics by selecting the italic text and either: (1) Hit the I  button on the Home ribbon, or (2) hit the Normal text button on the Equation Tools | Design ribbon. In either case, CaM will translate the non-italic text as either \mathrm{…}, \operatorname{…}, or \text{…}, depending on context.

Stretchy Delimiters

In Word math zones, the following delimiters are smart enough to automatically stretch to be as tall as needed.

( )  [ ]  { }  | |  \(\lVert\,\rVert \; \langle\,\rangle \; \lfloor\,\rfloor \; \lceil\,\rceil\)

TeX isn’t quite as smart in this regard, so CaM will add the necessary TeX sizing functions: \left, \right, \middle, \big, \bigg, \Big, and \Bigg. What renders in Word as \(\left(\frac a b\right)\) will be converted to: \(\left(\frac a b\right)\).

The following Unicode characters:

< > ∞ $ % # ¶ § © … £ ¥ € ✓ • Ⓡ ° ✠ å Å Æ æ Đ Ł ł ø ⌀ Ø Œ œ ß ∗ ○ • ∙ ∩ ⋅ ∘ ∪ ⋒ ⋓ ⨿ † ‡ ⋄ ÷ ∓ ⊙ ⊖ ⊕ ⊘ ⊗ ± ∖ ⧵ ⊓ ⊔ ⋆ × ◁ ▷ ⊎ ∨ ∧ ≀ ⊼ ⊡ ⊟ ⊞ ⊠ ⊺ ⋅ ⊛ ⊚ ⊝ ⋎ ⋏ ⋇ ∔ ⩞ ┬ ⋋ ⋉ ⋌ ⋊ ⊻ ⋂ ⋃ ⨀ ⨁ ⨂ ⨆ ⨄ ⋁ ⋀ ∐ ∫ ∮ ∏ ∑ ∬ ∭ ⨌ ⨝ ≈ ≍ ⋈ ⋍ ≅ ⊣ ⊧ ≐ ≡ ⌢ ∥ ⟂ ≺ ⪯ ∝ ∼ ≃ ⌣ ≻ ⪰ ⊢ ≊ ∽ ∵ ≬ ≎ ≏ ≗ ⋞ ⋟ ≑ ≖ ≒ ⊸ ⋔ ⪵ ⪶ ⪷ ≼ ≾ ≓ ⪸ ≽ ≿ ∴ ⊩ ⊨ ⊪ ≇ ∤ ∦ ⊀ ⋠ ≁ ≂ ⊁ ⋡ ⊭ ⊮ ⊬ ⊯ ⪹ ⋨ ⪺ ⋩ ⊏ ⊑ ⊐ ⊒ ⊂ ⊆ ⊃ ⊇ ⊈ ⊉ ⋐ ⫅ ⊊ ⫋ ⫌ ⋑ ⫆ ⊋ ⫌ ≥ ≫ ≤ ≪ ≠ ⪖ ⪕ ≧ ⩾ ⋙ ⪊ ⪈ ≩ ⋧ ⪆ ⋗ ⋛ ⪌ ≷ ≳ ≶ ≦ ⩽ ⪅ ⋖ ⋚ ⪋ ≲ ⋘ ⪉ ⪇ ≨ ⋦ ≱ ≯ ≰ ≮ ◀ ▶ ⋪ ⋬ ⋫ ⋭ ⊴ ⊵ ⊲ ⊳ ⇓ ↓ ↩ ↪ ↝ ← ⇐ ⇔ ↔ ⟵ ⟸ ⟷ ⟺ ⟼ ⟹ ⟶ ↦ ↗ ↖ ⇒ → ↘ ↙ ↑ ⇑ ↕ ⇕ ↽ ↼ ⇁ ⇀ ⇌ ↺ ↻ ↶ ↷ ⇠ ⇢ ⇊ ↢ ⇇ ⇆ ⇚ ⇛ ⇜ ↫ ↬ ↭ ↰ ↣ ⇄ ⇉ ⇝ ↱ ↞ ↠ ⇈ ⇍ ↚ ⇎ ↮ ⇏ ↛ ⇃ ⇂ ⇋ ↿ ↾ ⊥ ∃ ∀ ∈ ∉ ∋ ⊤ Ⓢ ∁ Ⅎ ⅁ ∄ ⋅ ⋯ : ⋱ … ⋮ ∶ ∠ \ ⌑ ♣ ⋄ ♢ ♭ ♡ ℧ ∇ ♮ ¬ ′ ″ ‴ ⁗ ♯ ♠ √ ‵ ★ ⧫ ■ ▲ △ ▴ ▵ ▼ ▽ ▾ ▿ ◊ ∡ ∢ □ ∅ ◇ 〈 ⟨ ⌈ ⌊ 〉 ⟩ ⌉ ⌋ │ ∣ ⌜ ⌞ ⌝ ⌟ ⎰ ⎱ 〔 〕 ≘ ≙ ≚ ≛ ≜ ≝ ≞ ≟

… are replaced with:

\lt \gt \infty \$ \% \# \P \S \copyright \ldots \pounds \yen \euro \checkmark \bullet \circledR \degree \maltese \aa \AA \AE \ae \DH \L \l \o \diameter \O \OE \oe \ss \ast \bigcirc \cdotp \bullet \cap \cdot \circ \cup \Cap \Cup \amalg \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \mp \odot \ominus \oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \smallsetminus \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star \times \triangleleft \triangleright \uplus \vee \wedge \wr \barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \intercal \centerdot \circledast \circledcirc \circleddash \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge \intercal \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \veebar \bigcap \bigcup \bigodot \bigoplus \bigotimes \bigsqcup \biguplus \bigvee \bigwedge \coprod \int \oint \prod \sum \iint \iiint \iiiint \Join \approx \asymp \bowtie \backsimeq \cong \dashv \models \doteq \equiv \frown \parallel \perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq \smile \succ \succeq \vdash \approxeq \backsim \because \between \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot \eqcirc \fallingdotseq \multimap \pitchfork \precneqq \succneqq \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \therefore \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash \ncong \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nsim \eqsim \nsucc \nsucceq \nvDash \nVdash \nvdash \nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim \sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \subset \subseteq \supset \supseteq \nsubseteq \nsupseteq \Subset \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \supsetneqq \Supset \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \geq \gg \leq \ll \neq \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geqq \geqslant \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \lessgtr \leqq \leqslant \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lesssim \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \ngeq \ngtr \nleq \nless \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \triangleleft \triangleright \Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto \leftarrow \Leftarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrow \nwarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrow \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow \leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoons \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \Lleftarrow \Rrightarrow \leftsquigarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \leftrightsquigarrow \Lsh \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upuparrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrow \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftrightharpoons \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \bot \exists \forall \in \notin \ni \top \circledS \complement \Finv \Game \nexists \cdot \cdots \colon \ddots \ldots \vdots \mathop{:} \angle \backslash \Box \clubsuit \Diamond \diamondsuit \flat \heartsuit \mho \nabla \natural \neg \prime {\prime\prime} {\prime\prime\prime} {\prime\prime\prime\prime} \sharp \spadesuit \surd \backprime \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \bigblacktriangleup \bigtriangleup \blacktriangle \vartriangle \bigblacktriangledown \bigtriangledown \blacktriangledown \triangledown \lozenge \measuredangle \sphericalangle \square \varnothing \Diamond \langle \langle \lceil \lfloor \rangle \rangle \rceil \rfloor \vert \mid \ulcorner \llcorner \urcorner \lrcorner \lmoustache \rmoustache \lgroup \rgroup \stackrel{\tiny\frown}{=} \stackrel{\tiny\wedge}{=} \stackrel{\tiny\vee}{=} \stackrel{\tiny\star}{=} \stackrel{\tiny\vartriangle}{=} \stackrel{\tiny\text{def}}{=} \stackrel{\tiny\text{m}}{=} \stackrel{\tiny{?}}{=}

Phantom and Smash

\phantom and \smash are TeX functions used to change the usual spacing around a character. Word’s UnicodeMath provides the same capability but uses single character commands instead of word-length commands.

CopyAsMarkup will translate from UnicodeMath to TeX, as usual. For instance, ⟡(0) translates to \phantom{0}.

A Word math zone will only display these command characters when in Linear mode. To get into Linear mode, first click once on the equation. That will make the outline of the math zone visible. Then click on the right border of the math zone and choose the Linear option. To return to the built up display, click on the right border of the zone and choose the Professional option.

The table below shows the available spacing adjustment commands in both UnicodeMath and in TeX.


AutoCorrect (TeX) UnicodeMath character width ascent descent ink
\phantom U+27E1 w a d no
\hphantom U+2B04 w 0 0 no
\vphantom U+21F3 0 a d no
\smash U+2B0D w 0 0 yes
\asmash U+2B06 w 0 d yes
\dsmash U+2B07 w a 0 yes
\hsmash U+2B0C 0 a d yes

Spacing

CaM translates Word’s non-breaking space character (Ctrl-Shift-Space) into the TeX spacing function \,